I recently had some issues as I dumped a MySQL/MariaDB database on a Linux server and tried to import that dump on my Windows working machine.
Umlauts broke on my Windows machine but not on the Linux server where dump was created. I found a good explanation how to actually create UTF-8 aware backups:
Dumping and importing from/to MySQL in an UTF-8 safe way
Use the mysqldump option to write the output to disk, dont use the bash redirect function (mysqldump … > database.sql).
$ mysqldump -u root -p database -r database.sql
Again, there is a better way using as using bash file reading:
$ mysql -u root -p --default-character-set=utf8 database mysql> SOURCE database.sql